You got

A Tory prime minister

A Tory chancellor, a Tory home secretary, a Tory education secretary, a Tory health secretary, a Tory foreign secretary, a Tory agriculture secretary, a Tory defence secretary, Tories in charge of work and pensions, local government, transport, justice, environment, universities, planning, culture and sport…oh, and you got the bedroom tax and food banks

All propped up by the Liberal Democrats


“The reality is that the numbers are rising” Brooks Newman on homelessness and rough sleepers

A couple of days ago there was a parliamentary debate initiated by Brooks Newmark, a Tory MP, on the unglamorous topic of homelessness and rough sleepers, mainly focused on London. The only backbencher to take part was the Tory MP for Truro and Falmouth, Sarah Newton, who made some brief and positive contributions. She deserves thanks for her genuine interest.

Unusually, I am going to put here without comment by me some of what Newmark and Newton said in the debate. It’s in Hansard (25 March 2015, column WH536 onwards) and should be widely read. It explains the increasing numbers of homelessness and rough sleeping people, very bluntly discusses the causes, and points to progress and solutions. It is a capital introduction.

Sarah Newton
“The Children’s Society looks after vulnerable 16 and 17-year-olds. It has told me that more than half the youngsters in that vulnerable age group who go along to local authorities are rejected. They are not properly assessed or given support, and some are labelled as intentionally homeless. In addition to the excellent work done by Crisis, the Children’s Society’s work draws us to conclude that there is a severe need for a proper review in the next Parliament of what local authorities are doing to implement their statutory responsibilities to conduct proper assessments.”

Brooks Newmark
“…the government changed the methodology used for local authority rough sleeping counts to make them more accurate in tracking annual trends…

…there has been a continued growth in returner rough sleepers in London, and that is a matter of concern. One possible factor in that is the cuts that many local authorities have made to their Supporting People budgets. Those cuts mean that people who leave the street do not get the support they need to sustain accommodation in the long term.

Turning to some of the key causes of homelessness, people become and stay homeless for a whole range of complex and overlapping reasons. Solving homelessness is about much more than putting a roof over people’s heads. Anyone can become homeless, but certain individual factors make it more likely, including relationship breakdown, leaving care, substance abuse and physical and mental health problems. A recent report for Crisis on the experience of single homeless people found that almost half of them had experienced mental ill health, drug dependency, or alcohol dependency, or had served a prison sentence.

Structural factors also play a major role. The continued shortage of housing and the ongoing effects of the economic recession are major drivers of homelessness. The welfare and housing systems have traditionally acted as a buffer between unemployment, poverty and homelessness. Government reforms, particularly cuts to housing benefit, are eroding that safety net. In particular, housing benefit has been cut by around £7 billion. Also, housing supply has not kept pace with demand for many decades. In total, almost 137,000 new houses were supplied in 2013-14—well below the estimated 232,000 required to keep up with demand.

…the Government, much to their credit, have invested £20 million in the homelessness transition fund, which supports 175 voluntary sector projects for single homeless people. The fund also supported the national roll-out of the No Second Night Out initiative. Indeed, No Second Night Out has been successful in supporting many new rough sleepers in moving off the streets. Some 67% of the rough sleepers worked with were taken off the streets after the first night that they were found to be sleeping rough, and the majority of them did not return to the streets once helped.

…the Department for Communities and Local Government introduced the gold standard programme, which is a set of best practice principles for local authorities to sign up to, designed to drive improvements in housing options services. DCLG also invested £13 million in the Crisis private rented access scheme. Since the creation of the scheme, 153 voluntary sector-led projects have helped 9,320 vulnerable people into accommodation, with more than 90% maintaining tenancies for at least six months.

Crisis recently conducted a mystery shopping exercise, in which eight formerly homeless people visited 16 local authorities to examine the quality of advice and assistance that they provide to single homeless people. In well over half the 87 visits, the help offered was inadequate. In 29 cases, they were simply turned away without any help or the opportunity to speak to a housing adviser, despite the mystery shoppers portraying individuals in very vulnerable situations, including someone who was forced to sleep rough after losing their job, a young person thrown out of the family home, a victim of domestic violence and a person with learning difficulties.”

The data for homelessness and rough sleeping by council areas is at the two following websites:

Homelessness data (Table 784)
Rough sleeper data

This post contains parliamentary information licensed under the Open Parliament Licence v3.0

I shall link here to writings by other people on topics of interest for the coming general election. They express views I largely agree with or give facts that I largely think are telling and should shape our views. See them as work towards building a manifesto.

Tax and benefit changes since May 2010

The effect of the coalition’s tax and benefit changes on household incomes and work incentives
Institute for fiscal studies (IFS) 23 January 2015
CLICK here

Social policies

The coalition’s social policy record 2010-2015 (includes taxes and benefits)
Manchester University and LSE January 2015
CLICK here

Housing and housing benefits and taxes

Election 2015: what’s at stake for housing?
Centre for labour and social studies (CLASS) 17 February 2015
CLICK here

The general election housing benefit figures released – welfare reform costs more and not a penny saved
Joe Halewood 19 February 2015
CLICK here

National Health Service

The future is now: the innovations of today that point to better health care tomorrow
Chris Ham and Anna Brown, King’s Fund 2015
CLICK here

Original post 23 February 2015
Updated 1 March 2015, 19 March 2015

This is an updated list at 19 March 2015 of current prospective parliamentary candidates for Cornwall seats at the 7 May 2015 general election. Things may change.

Camborne and Redruth
Conservative: George Eustice MP
Green: Geoff Garbett
Labour: Michael Foster
Liberal Democrat: Julia Goldsworthy
MK: Loveday Jenkin
UKIP: Robert Smith

April 2014: The MK candidate for Camborne and Redruth was Mike Champion but he has resigned from MK

UKIP candidate David Evans was deselected: West Briton 15 October 2014

North Cornwall
Conservative: Scott Mann
Green: Amanda Pennington
Labour: John Whitby
Liberal Democrat: Dan Rogerson
UKIP: Julie Lingard

Orlando Kimber has withdrawn as MK candidate. See Falmouth Packet.

South East Cornwall
Conservative: Sheryll Murray MP
Green: Martin Corney
Labour: Declan Lloyd
Liberal Democrat: Phil Hutty
MK: Andrew Long
UKIP: Bradley Monk

St Austell and Newquay
Conservative: Steve Double
Green: Steve Slade
Labour: Deborah Hopkins
Liberal Democrat: Stephen Gilbert MP
MK: Dick Cole
UKIP: David Mathews

St Ives and Isles of Scilly
Conservative: Derek Thomas
Green: Tim Andrewes
Labour: Cornelius Olivier
Liberal Democrat: Andrew George MP
MK: Rob Simmons
UKIP: Graham Calderwood

Truro and Falmouth
Conservative: Sarah Newton MP
Independent: Loic Rich
Labour: Stuart Roden
Liberal Democrat: Simon Rix
MK: Stephen Richardson
National Health Action : Rik Evans
UKIP: John Hyslop

The Labour candidate, Hanna Toms, resigned her candidature on 9 February 2015. See this report.

Sharron Kelsey has withdrawn as the Green candidate for Truro and Falmouth. See Falmouth Packet.

Related post

2010 general election candidates in Cornwall

2010 election results for Cornwall


18 March 2015

CLICK FOR LATEST ADDED Unemployment: JSA claimants in Cornwall February 2015

In this ongoing post I bring together data about Cornwall from various sources so that it is more readily accessible. Much is already posted at scattered places on this blog of course. All the data refers only to Cornwall and its parts (and sometimes includes and sometimes excludes the Isles of Scilly). Sources are given in square brackets; I have also included some website addresses, though these may change, so that you can explore the data for yourself. Explanatory notes with the original data are important for understanding.

Abortions |Affordable housing |Antidepressant prescribing | Average pay |Bedroom tax in Cornwall |Benefit costs in Cornwall |Cancer services | Children born in Cornwall | Civil partnerships registered in Cornwall |Classroom assistants in Cornwall schools | Cornwall Council pay | Cornwall Council employment | Cornwall disability services cuts | Council tax arrears in Cornwall | Council tax benefit recipients in Cornwall | Cornwall MPs’ expenses and allowances | Cornwall health spending | Deprivation in Cornwall |Education maintenance allowance(EMA) | Electors in Cornwall | Empty dwellings | Free school meals | Fuel poverty | GDP AND GVA | Housing benefits | House repossessions | Housing waiting lists | Landfill in Cornwall | Land use in Cornwall | Life expectancy in Cornwall | Looked-after children in Cornwall | Miscellaneous | National lottery in Cornwall | Not in education, employment, or training | Pensioners in Cornwall | Place survey 2008 | Population of Cornwall including electors | Public sector employment | Pupil funding | Pupil premium in Cornwall | Religion in Cornwall at 2011 census | School place appeals in Cornwall | Schoolteachers | Second homes | Smoking mothers in Cornwall | Social class in Cornwall | Sure Start | Teenage pregnancies in Cornwall | Unemployment: JSA claimants | Uncollected domestic and non-domestic local taxes | University College Falmouth: socio-economic background of students |Water and sewerage bills | Wind farm capacity factor in Cornwall 2009 |

The Department of Health annually publishes abortion statistics for England and Wales.

For the area of the Cornwall clinical commissioning group (NHS Kernow) there were 1161 abortions in 2012 (Table 10a), a rate of 13.3 per 1000 women resident here aged 15-44 (see Table 10a here. For England for 2012 the rate was 16.6 per 1000 (Table 10b).

In 2012/13 745 additional affordable dwellings were provided in Cornwall. These were made up of: 159 for social rent, 153 for affordable rent, 21 for intermediate rent, and 421 for affordable purchase in Department for works and pensions table 1011.

Number of antidepressant items prescribed per GP practice in Cornwall per 1000 people (third quarter 2012/13: 185-225, that is the third quartile where the first quartile is least prescriptions in England). Source: Focus on: antidepressant prescribing(Nuffield Trust and Health Foundation, May 2014)

£23 305 for the year ending April 2014, (median, annual, gross, fulltime, all workers, by Cornwall residence; the England comparative median was £27 500. [ONS, ASHE 2013, Table 8.7a].

There are various ways of measuring average pay, eg mean and median average, male and female and both, fulltime and part time, by place of work and by place of residence, by local authority and by constituency, weekly pay and annual pay. Figures for median average pay tend to be less than for mean average.

ASHE Annual survey of hours and earnings here .


The updated (February 2014) figures for the bedroom tax in Cornwall as at November 2013 are:
Total number of claimants of housing benefit: 43 093
Claimants whose social rent housing benefit has been reduced: 2729
Average weekly benefit reduction: £13.51
(The reduction is applied only to relevant tenants in social housing. Housing benefit claimants are 21 152 tenants in private housing and 21 946 in social housing. The totals do not sum because of rounding.) SOURCE: Housing benefit caseload statistics December 2013

In 2011/12 the costs (in £millions) of various benefits and allowances in Cornwall were:
Total £1479.4 million, made up of –
Attendance allowance £ 55.1 million, Bereavement/widows benefit 5.1, Carers allowance 16.4, Council tax benefit 46.5, Disbility living allowance (DLA) 121.0, Employment and support allowance (ESA) 31.4, Housing benefit 178.0, Incapacity benefit 46.2, Income support 54.3, Job seekers allowance (JSA) 30.4, Pension credit 83.0, Severe disablement allowance 8.0, State pension 780.1, Winter fuel payments (WFP) 24.0. The total of these figures is in England 2011/12 was £131803 million. SOURCE Department of work and pensions (
In 2013/14 the total costs in Cornwall were £1548.6 million, in England £136 128 million: see DWP source

The second annual report on some cancer services and outcomes was published by the Department of Health on 1 December 2009. It includes data for Cornwall and Isles of Scilly primary care trust and the Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust (RCHT) on pages 29, 46, and 67.

The ONS publishes the details for England and Wales of the numbers of live births to mothers who themselves were born in the United Kingdom or born outside the United Kingdom in each year. The figures for Cornwall (excluding the Isles of Scilly), with much lower percentages than for England as a whole, for the first and last years of the series are:

2008: 5423 live births, 92.4 percent of which were to mothers born inside the UK
2001: 4463 live births, 94.5 percent of which were to mothers born in the UK.

In 2010 there were 5558 live births in Cornwall: see table 1a ONS here.

The data is in tables 3a-3h on this ONS website which also gives separate figures for each of the former districts in Cornwall. [ONS]

Civil partnerships became possible in Britain with the coming into force of the Civil Partnership Act 2004 on 5 December 2005.

Civil partnerships registered in Cornwall by year:
2005: none
2006: 160
2007: 85
2008: 62
2009: 69
2010: 60
2011: 71
2012: 77
2013: 66
Sources: Lords Hansard 6 June 2011 column WA 15-16 (for years 2005-09) and Civil partnership formations, for years 2008-2013

At November 2012 there were 2462 fulltime classroom assistants in Cornwall schools [Hansard 2 September 2013 column 65W]

The number of people employed by Cornwall Council was 20 994 (31 December 2009) and 16 367 (30 September 2011) [Graham Smith’s blog 20 January 2012 here.]

Some details of the total pay of the council’s employees getting at least £100 000 pa are summarised in Town hall rich list by the Taxpayers Alliance, 17 March 2011. Table 3 shows thirty two employees of Cornwall Council getting £100 000 pa or more in remuneration, including employer’s pension contributions, in 2009/10. This makes Cornwall, with Newcastle on Tyne, the council with the highest number of employees over this benchmark for the year.

A survey by Demos and Scope of how 152 local authorities in England are handling cuts to disability services puts Cornwall Council at 11th out of 152 (where 1st is best).

In 2011-2012 the total revenue funding of Cornwall and Isles of Scilly (CIOS) primary care trust is £916.136 million. This is an increase of 3.1 percent over 2010-2011. The CIOS percapita funding is £1687 pa for 2011-2012. For England trusts as a whole the percapita spending is £1693, an increase of 3 .0 percent over 2010-2011. [See Department for health Exposition book 2011-2012. (scroll to the Exposition book). Also seeHansard 5 April 2011 column829W for net data.]


These are now published by the Independent parliamentary standards authority (IPSA) here.


At 31 March 2011 the total outstanding council tax arrears in Cornwall was £12 877 000 [DEP2012-1047 of 25 June 2012]. At 31 March 2014 the Cornwall arrears totalled £14 807 00; the average default in Cornwall was £57.30 per dwelling; there were 258 422 dwellings in Cornwall at September 2013; the collection rate of Cornwall council tax in 2013/14 was 97.13 percent [DEP2014-1366 of 22 October 2014]


At March 2012 the number of council tax benefit recipients in Cornwall was 54 170 (April 2011: 52 490). At January 2011 the recipients by Cornwall constituency were:
Camborne and Redruth 9760. North Cornwall 8130. South East Cornwall 7810. St Austell and Newquay 9870. St Ives (including Isles of Scilly) 9200. Truro and Falmouth 7800. [ DWPAdditional tables, updated regularly]

There are several ways of measuring deprivation. The Indices of multiple deprivation (IMD) are a major one.

The IMD of 2007 show Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly at 69th out of 142 ‘counties, cities, and London boroughs’ in England, where 1st is the most deprived. The IMD puts the Cornwall and Isles of Scilly primary care trust (CIOS) area at 74th out of 152 trust areas where 1st is the most deprived.The IMD of 2010 show Cornwall unitary authority at 110 out of 326 local authorities (rank of average score).

The IMD 2007 give these results for the former districts of Cornwall out of 354 districts in England, the score 1st is the most deprived: Penwith 36th, Kerrier 86th, Restormel 89th, North Cornwall 96th, Carrick 120th, and Caradon 156th. The IMD 2010 do not include the former districts of Cornwall, by then abolished.

IMD deprivation varies vastly across Cornwall and the measurements for 32 482 subwards in England which are available show this clearly.

See the IMD 2007 here. The IMD 2010 are here [new addresses as the former DCLG ones no longer work]

The Health Observatory website here has some deprivation data for Cornwall too. Also look at the data above for free school meals in Cornwall.

The estimate of the End Child Poverty campaign for mid-2010 was that 19 percent of children in Cornwall live in poverty, below the England average: read their definition. Data for Cornwall wards is given.

At August 2011 there were 7647 recipients of the England education education allowance (EMA) in Cornwall. This is for 16-18 year olds to encourage them to stay on at school or college. EMA has since been abolished. [Source: Young people’s learning agency]

See this post of 27 January 2012 for details of the England bursary scheme and the Cornwall bursary scheme.

There were 9522 empty dwellings in Cornwall at 5 October 2010. Figures for previous years were October 2009: 9407; October 2008 for the six districts: 9012. [Hansard 14 May 2009 columns 998W-999W; Empty Homes Agency]

Eligibility for free school meals is an indication of income deprivation and is an influence on educational achievement.

Percentage of primary and nursery pupils eligible for free school meals, January 2011:
England 18.0 (2010: 17.3)
Cornwall 14.1 (2010: 13.0)

Percentage of secondary pupils eligible for free school meals, January 2011:
England 14.6 (2010: 14.2)
Cornwall 10.8 (2010: 10.3)
[Scroll on the Education department web page to the
free school meals tables

The relationship of eligibility for free school meals and not gaining any GCSEs above grade D is given in DEP 2009-0918 of 19 March 2009 (Parliamentary Library).

Also see the data for deprivation below.

The percentage of pupils in individual schools eligible for free school meals at January 2009 is given in the Parliamentary Library deposited papers at DEP 2010-0089 for 11 January 2010. Cornwall LA number on the data sheet is 908.

The Department of energy and climate change (DECC) publishes data for households in fuel poverty. There are statistics for the numbers of households in fuel poverty for the six constituencies and 327 subwards in Cornwall in 2010.

Fuel poverty is defined as having to spend more than ten percent of income on a satisfactory heating regime: more details on the DECC website.

In Cornwall as whole in 2009 around 60 000 households were classed as in fuel poverty, about 26 percent of all households; in 2010 the figures were 44 706 and 19.1 percent.

The latest GVA data for Cornwall and the Scillies was published by the ONS on 14 December 2011. Cornwall GVA perhead, current prices by workplace, was £13 129 in 2009. (£13 256 in 2008, £12 681 in 2007) which is 65.6 percent of the UK mean average (64.5 percent in 2008, 63.6 percent in 2007). Details from the ONS for 2009 are here (NUTS 2 subregions).


At March 2012 there were 42 680 recipients of housing benefit in Cornwall (April 2011: 40 590). At January 2011 numbers of recipients by constituency were:
Camborne and Redruth 7310. North Cornwall 6060. South East Cornwall 5910. St Austell and Newquay 8120. St Ives (including the Isles of Scilly) 7070. Truro and Falmouth 6070. [ DWP Additional tables, updated regularly]

In July 2010 there were 39 710 people in Cornwall claiming housing benefit of which 12 840 received local housing allowance, the housing benefit for people not in social/council housing but private rented accommodation. Note that the recipients are ‘benefit units’ who might be a single person or a couple. [Table 2 in DEP2010-1938 of 4 November 2010 in House of Commons library]

There was a total of 820 orders for mortgage and landlord repossessions in Cornwall (unitary authority and the Isles of Scilly) in 2011. The figure for martgage repossession orders only was 360. [Ministry of Justice:

In 2011/12 there were 505 mortgage repossession claims in Cornwall and the rate of repossession claims in Cornwall was 2.4 per 1000 houses; Cornwall was 235th out of 324 England local authorities (where 1 is worst). [Shelter]

HOUSING WAITING LISTS At the end of August 2013 were were about 28 600 households on the Cornwall unitary council housing waiting list. At 1 April 1997 there were 8124. The details from the Department of communities, by district and by years 1997-2012, are in Table 600 here. There are statistics for both the current Cornwall unitary authority and the former shire county. Read the explanation of the figures at the foot of the table. The current Cornwall details are here.

Cornwall 2007/08:
Total municipal waste 324 480 tonnes
Total municipal waste sent to landfill 210 386 tonnes (64.84 percent of total municipal waste)
The average proportion of municipal waste sent to landfill for the 121 unitary and waste disposal authorities in England was 54.42 percent.
[Hansard 26 October 2009 column 50W-54W]

Details of land use in Cornwall are available for the six former districts and for wards. The categories are given in square metres for domestic buildings, nondomestic buildings, domestic gardens, roads, rail, paths, greenspace, water, other, and unclassified. The tables are at Census ward levels GLUD 2005 tables. GLUD means Generalised land use database. An explanatory document of the GLUD statistics is here.

LOOKED-AFTER CHILDREN IN CORNWALLAT 31 March 2012 there were 480 (to nearest five) children under eighteen who were in the care of Cornwall local authority. Figures for England were 67 050 (to nearest ten). The data is in Table LAA1 here and covers several past years.

Life expectancy at birth in Cornwall 2009-2011: males 79.2 years, females 83.3 years (England: males 78.9, females 82.9). Cornwall ranks 57 out of 150 local authorities for both male and female life expectancy where 1 is best [ONS, ‘Healthy life expectancy at birth for upper tier local authorities’]. Healthy life runs at about 80 percent of the total years of life expectancy.

Statistics for Cornish towns is a booklet produced by the Office of National Statistics (ONS). The revised version is dated September 2009. It contains data about deprivation, the number and size of businesses, unemployment, and population. Read it through the South West Observatory here.The South West Observatory website also has other data.

South West Regional Development Agency (SWRDA) (now abolished) published in October 2009 Economic profile: issue 8 which discusses Cornwall’s economy in the recession on pages 20-25. Read it here.

Since the National Lottery began in 1995 and up to September 2011, £265.745 million has been distributed in Cornwall.
Source: Department for culture, media, and sport

The number of young people aged 16-24 in Cornwall who are not in education, employment, or training (NEETS) was 6000 for January-December 2009. This was 12 percent of the age group. The Cornwall percentage is the 23rd lowest of the 148 local authorities listed. For the reliability of the figures, see the original. [Hansard 20 July 2010 column 303W]

There are about 137 000 old age pensioners in Cornwall (males aged 65 and over, females 60 and over, mid-2010). The full figures, including for both the county and the former districts, are in this zip file on the ONS website. [ONS]

A survey in 2008 by the Department for Communities and Local Government looked at people’s views of the locality and local services. Question 5 asked people how strongly they felt they belonged to their immediate neighbourhood. In the Cornwall area 66.5 percent said fairly or very strongly. This was 53rd out of 353 council areas, the largest percentage being at number 1.
[Department of Communities and Local Government Place survey 2008]

The estimated population of Cornwall, excluding the Isles of Scilly, at the 2011 census (27 March 2011) was 532 273.
There are various counts of people in Cornwall.

Census and mid-year estimates
2011 census: 532 273 (Table PO7)
About 430 000 (81 percent) were aged eighteen or over but see Electoral register.
Mid-year estimate 2012: 537 914

Electoral register
The Office for national statistics (ONS) has published electoral register statistics. They are up to date up to February 2014 and include attainers.
Cornwall local government electors: 409 639
Cornwall parliamentary electors: 406 887

(Parliamentary electors 1 December 2013 in Camborne and Redruth 64 769, North Cornwall 63 718, South East Cornwall 68 570, St Austell and Newquay 73 808, St Ives 65 736, Truro and Falmouth 70 286).

Patients registered with GPs in Cornwall and Isles of Scilly(Kernow Clinical Commissioning Group)
Clinical commissioning group population 2012: 555 917

All the electoral register figures include attainers, that is electors who attain the age of eighteen in the months after the compilation of the register.

The mid-year resident population aged 18 and over includes everyone whereas the electoral register includes only those eligible to vote and thus excludes some foreign citizens for example; people who move away are removed from the register but this may not be instantaneous.

The number of GP patients in England has regularly exceeded the population every year since 1961.

Reasons for excess population on GP lists are given here: some patients are registered with more than one practice, some have more than one NHS number, some patients remain on the list after they have died or moved abroad, and the effectiveness of the removal of ex-patients varies.

The per-pupil dedicated schools grant (DSG) for 2011-12 includes various other grants and is now known as GUFS, guaranteed units of funding. For 2011-12 GUFS include the 2010-11 DSG at the same cash level plus the other grants. For 2011-12 Cornwall per pupil GUF is £4663.54, made up of £4042.72 DSG 2010-11 and £620.82 other relevant 2010-11 grants.

Details are here at the excel file GUFS 2011-12.

In terms of per pupil funding for 2011-12 Cornwall is 134th out of 151 authorities (that is at the 12th percentile); seventeen authorities have lower GUF funding than Cornwall. The average England per pupil GUF 2011-12 is £5082.53. Any pupil premium for individual pupils and students is additional to GUF.

The dedicated schools grant (DSG) began in 2006/07 and earlier per pupil allocations are not directly comparable. Before 2006/07 schools were funded largely through the formula grant which, apart from the DSG, is the main grant from central government to local authorities.

The numbers of employees working in the public sector and the proportion of the workforce they account for by constituency for 2013. The data is work-placed based not by residence in the constituency.
Source: House of Commons Library Standard Note SN/EP/5635 based on the Business register and employment survey (BRES).
number, percentage of local workforce
Camborne and Redruth 4500, 16.5 percent
North Cornwall 4800, 13.7 percent
St Austell and Newquay 5700, 16.1 percent
St Ives 4500, 16.2 percent
South East Cornwall 3400, 14.2 percent
Truro and Falmouth 11 400, 24.8 percent

The pupil premium began in 2011/12. It has three components for deprivation: eligibility for free school meals; military service children; looked-after children.In 2012/13 the amounts for each pupil were increased and the eligibility for the deprivation component was widened.

In 2011/12 10 690 pupils in Cornwall state-funded schools, including academies, qualified for a pupil premium with a total funding of £4.741 million; that is, 16.4 percent of all pupils in those schools. In 2012/13 the provisional figure is 16 050 pupils (24.6 percent) and £9.049 million. [ Department for Education]

The 2011 census in table QS210EW gave the following: Christians 318 357, 59.8 percent of the population of Cornwall; Other religions 9480, 1.8 percent; No religion 159 080, 29.9 percent; Religion not stated 45 356, 8.5 percent.

In 2007/08 there were 277 appeals by parents against the non-admission of their child to their preferred primary school in Cornwall; 75 were successful. For secondary schools in Cornwall the figures are 405 and 151.

8183 children were admitted to Cornwall primary schools September 2007-January 2008 and 6514 to secondary schools in the same period.
[Department for children, families, and schools: here (scroll to table 3)]

The number of fulltime-equivalent schoolteachers in Cornwall maintained at January 2010 was 2190 in secondary schools and 1930 in nursery and primary schools and 120 in special schools: total 4240 (including 170 unqualified teachers). There were 1490 secondary teaching assistants and other secondary support staff and 2000 primary ones. The school workforce data is here. The cost of employing teachers in Cornwall Council maintained schools for 2008-2009 was £18.87 million and for teaching assistants £4.646 million (Hansard 27 October 2010 column 364W-368W). The average teacher salary in Cornwall in £36 000 in 2009 (website above). All the figures are for fulltime-equivalent staff.

Second homes in Cornwall (excluding Scillies) totalled 14 095 in 2010, 5.6 percent of the housing stock, based on council tax [House of Commons Library DEP2010-2186 of 6 December 2010]. In 2004 there were 13 509 second homes. The DEP data gives district totals and percentages for 2004-2008.

In terms of numbers of second homes in 2008 North Cornwall was 7th out of 354 England authorities, Penwith 15th, Carrick 24th, Caradon 26th, Restormel 30th, and Kerrier 47th. These positions represent numbers of second homes not percentages of housing stock.

The estimated cost of the second homes discount in Cornwall was £2 067 000 [Department for Communities and Local Government local authority council tax database 2011: Parliamentary Library, DEP 2012-0644, 17 April 2012]

The Health and social care information centre (HSCIC) publishes quarterly and annual statistics on the number and percentage of mothers who are smoking at the time of delivery. For 2012/13 the Cornwall percentage was 13.8, the England percentage 12.7. See here. The Cornwall and England statistics show a decline in mothers smoking at the time of delivery over the decade. In 2005/06 the Cornwall figure was 19.9 percent.

The 2011 census in QS611EW, approximate social grade, gives the proportions of people in Cornwalll (aged 16-64 in households) in social groups: AB 18.3 percent, C1 28.7 percent, C2 27.2 percent, DE 25.8 percent. [2011 census, ONS]

At the end of October 2009 there were thirty seven Sure Start Centres in Cornwall.
[ Hansard 14 December 2009 column 702W]

In 2009 there were 292 conceptions to under-18 girls in Cornwall, 30.5 per 1000 girls in Cornwall aged 15-17. In England the average was 38.2 per 1000 (45.5 per 1000 in 1997 in England). [Source: Hansard 12 December 2011 column 517W which gives the data for every primary local authority]

All JSA claimants in Cornwall and Isles of Scilly, resident population aged 16-64. February 2015: 5078, 1.6 percent. January 2015: 5081, 1.6 percent. February 2014: 7522, 2.3 percent [ONS Nomis].

Cornwall and Scillies youth claimant count, resident population aged 18-24. February 2015: 1380. January 2015: 1345 February 2014: 2225 [ONS Nomis]

The 2013 contribution-based jobseekers allowance (JSA) broadly is £71.70 a week for people aged 25 and over 25 and £56.25 a week for people aged 16 to 24. The value of the income-based JSA is different. For details see here.

The jobseekers claimant count is not a measure of unemployment but of people claiming the benefit who must be, inter alia, available for work and actively seeking work.

This website gives details of jobseeker claimant counts over time for Cornwall:

This website gives details of the youth claimant counts over time in Cornwall:

These are general labour statistics for Cornwall and Scilly:

The latest labour force survey data, a measure of employment/unemployment, is for October 2011-September 2012:

For 2009/10 the total of uncollected council tax in Cornwall was £5.967 million (2.5 percent of the total due) and uncollected non-domestic rates £3.635 million (2. 9 percent) [GMB union 22 July 2010]

Socio-economic data about first degree students entering University College, Falmouth in 2008/09 has been published by the Higher education statistics agency (HESA). It is available at the Guardian here: Falmouth is number 35 in the second table or scroll to Download the full spreadsheet where Falmouth is number 44.

31.6 percent of the first degree Falmouth entrants were working class, that is the occupation of the senior working parent was in a routine or manual occupation (groups 4, 5, 6, and 7 in National Statistics: socio-economic classification). The mean average for all England universities was 32.4 percent. The working class made up about 37 percent of the UK population (ONS).

The average water and sewerage bill for customers of South West Water, including people in Cornwall, is £549 in 203/14.

The average bills for the different England companies for 2009/10 to 2013/14 are given in DEP2013-1980 of 9 December 2013. All are lower than South West’s.

The nine wind farm developments in Cornwall in 2009 had an average output of 22.37% of their capacity.
[Michael Jefferson, professor of International Business and Sustainability at the London Metropolitan Business School cited here and here.]

People assessed as unfit for work are being reassessed. Between October 2010 and July 2011 in England 37 percent were reassessed as fit for work and 63 percent as eligible for employment support allowance (ESA). In Cornwall (excluding the Isles of Scilly) the figures were 34 percent fit for work and 66 percent eligible for ESA. Details are given by the Department for work and pensions in an excel spreadsheet dated 20 April 2012 here.

General sources

These data and research pages on the website site of Cornwall unitary council carry very much societal data about Cornwall.

ASHE Annual survey of hours and earnings (

DEP Deposited parliamentary papers (

Hansard (

ONS Office for National Statistics

Teachernet (

A useful website for understanding local government language is:

Cornwall Council publishes a monthly report on the local and national economy:
Economy monthly monotoring update( 22498)

Health and welfare data for Cornwall is available from Public Health Observatories here.


17 March 2015

Cornwall Libdem Watch is where I shall scrutinise the three Libdem MPs and other Libdem politicians in Cornwall in Cornwall and the impact of their Tory-led government’s policies upon people here. I have put on the blog more detailed posts about some of the issues. Also see this post, Stepping forward with the Libdems.

On 25 February 2015 the Lords debated an amendment to the Modern Slavery bill from Raymond Jolliffe (lord Hylton). This closes the longstanding loophole whereby someone employed by a foreigner, often from the Middle East, as a domestic cannot leave an abusive employer without losing her visa right to work in Britain for another domestic employer.

The Tory Libdem government opposed the amendment which was passed by 183 to 176 votes (Lords Hansard 25 February 2015 column 1705). Members of the Lords associated with Cornwall voted thus: Brenda Dean (Labour) for the amendment; all four Libdem members Judith Jolly, Matthew Taylor, Robin Teverson, and Paul Tyler voted against the amendment.

On 17 March 2015 the Commons rejected the Lords amendment by 276-209 (Hansard columns 645-684): Dan Rogerson (Libdem North Cornwall) and the three Tory MPs for Cornwall seats voted with the government against the Lords amendment; no vote is recorded for Andrew George and Stephen Gilbert, the other Libdem MPs for Cornwall seats. The Commons then accepted a government amendment in lieu of the Lords one.

The Commons voted on 25 February 2015 on a Labour motion calling for MPs to be prevented from taking paid second jobs as directors and consultants (vote at Hansard column 427). Andrew George and Dan Rogerson voted against the Labour motion; no vote is recorded for Stephen Gilbert.

Last month the Commons debated the large rise in the number of infant classes with more than 30 pupils (Hansard 3 September 2014 column 348). A Labour motion noted the rise and the spending in areas without a shortage of school places through the free schools program. The motion was defeated and Andrew George (Libdem, St Ives) and Dan Rogerson (Lib Dem, North Cornwall) voted against it; no vote is recorded for Stephen Gilbert (Libdem, St Austell). The Libdem 2010 election manifesto promised to cut class sizes, as did the Tory manifesto.

Among the issues around housing are the charges made by letting agents in the private housing sector. In the Commons Labour moved an amendment to the Consumer rights bill to ban such charges. This amendment, new clause 22, was defeated by 281-228 votes ( Hansard 13 May 2014, column 703, division 279). Two Libdems and one Tory voted for the Labour amendment.

Two Libdem MPs from Cornwall, Andrew George (St Ives) and Stephen Gilbert (St Austell and Newquay), voted against the amendment. No vote is recorded for Dan Rogerson (Libdem, North Cornwall).

On 12 November 2013 the Commons voted on a Labour motion calling for the repeal of the bedroom tax; there was also a vote on a Tory Libdem government amendment supporting the tax: Hansard columns 823-923, divisions 126 and 127. Cornwall Libdem MPs split. Andrew George (St Ives ) voted for the Labour motion and against the amendment, one of only two Libdem MPs to do so; Stephen Gilbert (St Austell and Newquay) and Dan Rogerson (North Cornwall), and most Libdem MPs, voted against the Labour motion and for the amendment.

All three Libdem MPs for Cornwall (Andrew George, Stephen Gilbert, and Dan Rogerson) voted against mitigating amendments put by Labour to the Justice and security bill: 4 March 2013, divisions 169 and 170. The bill extends the use of secret courts to protect the intelligence services. There is a brief account of the issues here.

All three Libdem MPs from Cornwall voted on 5 February 2013 for the second reading of the same-sex marriage bill, as did Sarah Newton, the Tory MP for Truro and Falmouth. The other two Cornwall Tory MPs (George Eustice and Sheryll Murray) abstained.

A follow-up of 28. The three Cornwall Libdem MPs split three ways on the report stage and third reading of bill to limit rises in benefits to 1 percent (Hansard 21 January 2013). See the post From him that hath not 2 for details.

On the second reading of the bill to limit increases in social security benefits (Welfare benefits uprating bill) the three Cornwall Libdem MPs split. Andrew George recorded his abstention by voting for and against and Stephen Gilbert and Dan Rogerson both voted for the bill. All three voted against the Labour amendment. Of 57 Libdem MPs only four voted solely against the second reading of the bill, forty ( including one teller) supported the bill, and two recorded abstentions (Hansard 8 January 2013 column 271). See follow-up at 29.

On 12 December 2012 the Lords supported an amendment to liberalise the Public Order Act 1986 by removing “insulting” from the words or behaviour that were prosecutable. Judith Jolly and Robin Teverson, both Libdems, voted for the amendment. No other peer associated with Cornwall voted for or against (Lords Hansard 12 December 2012 column 1119-1133). On 19 December 2012 Andrew George, Libdem MP for St Ives, voted against a bill to automatically treat religious institutions as charities (Hansard 19 December 2012 column 892).

On 19 March 2012 Stephen Gilbert and Dan Rogerson both voted for the enactment of the Unfair dismissal and statement of reasons for dismissal (Variation of qualifying period) Order, 2012; no vote is recorded for Andrew George. See Hansard 19 March 2012 column 517 for the vote at division 494. The Order increases from one year to two years the qualifying period of continuous employment before a worker can claim unfair dismissal. It comes into effect on 6 April 2012. Details of the Order are here. The Tory Libdem government claim is that this higher qualifying threshold will give employers the confidence to take on more workers but it is a lessening of employee security in Cornwall and elsewhere.

Early day motion (EDM) 2659 asks the government to publish the transition risk register for the Health and social care bill. Of the three Cornwall Libdem MPs Andrew George and Dan Rogerson have signed the EDM. The information commissioner has said that it should be published but the government is appealing against that decision. On 22 February 2012 there was a debate in the Commons on a Labour motion calling on the government to publish this risk register. Of the three Cornwall Libdem MPs Andrew George voted for the motion and Stephen Gilbert against.

On 12 December 2011 the Lords debated an amendment to the Welfare Reform Bill, an amendment which would, in the words of Tanni Grey-Thompson, its mover, “ensure that the disabled additions for children provided under the universal credit are not cut compared with the disability additions provided through the current benefits and tax credits system”. Read the details in Lords Hansard 12 December 2011 columns 1044-1060.

Her amendment was lost by 189-187 votes. Forty six Libdems voted with the Tories to cut the disability additions for disabled children other than the most severely disabled. Among the forty six were Judith Jolly and Paul Tyler, two Libdem members of the Lords associated with Cornwall. There is an explanation of the disability measures here and a factsheet about universal credit from the Disability alliance here.

On 14 December 2011 the Lords debated amendment 12 to the Welfare Reform bill; the amendment allowed more flexibility for a spare room in social housing related to family circumstances; it hinges on a definition of ‘underoccupancy’. In a vote on amendment 12 Matthew Taylor, former Libdem MP in Cornwall, voted with the majority for the amendment. Judith Jolly, Robin Teverson, and Paul Tyler, other Libdem members of the Lords associated with Cornwall, voted with the government against the amendment. The amendment was carried. See details at Lords Hansard 14 December 2011 column 1285-1308.

I have written three posts discussing these issues and similar and Cornwall Libdem peers’ and MPs’ votes: The shame of the Libdems, How Cornwall peers and MPs voted, and Libdems cross the Rubicon.

The Commons voted on 25 October 2011 on Labour amendment 32 to stop the abolition of the Agricultural Wages Board (AWB) for England and Wales. Andrew George (St Ives) voted for the Labour amendment; Stephen Gilbert and Dan Rogerson voted against the amendment, as did the three Tory MPs for Cornwall: Hansard 25 October 2011 column 238. About 4000 workers in Cornwall benefit from the AWB.

Early day motion 892 of June 2000 expressed the belief that: “any weakening of the Agricultural Wages Board or its abolition would further impoverish the rural working class, exacerbate social deprivation and the undesirable indicators associated with social exclusion…” It was signed by Candy Atherton (Labour MP for Camborne) and the then Cornwall Libdem MPs Andrew George, Matthew Taylor, and Paul Tyler(who are presently members of the Commons or Lords) and Colin Breed.

On the third reading of the Health and social care bill (Hansard 7 September 2011 column 497) which rejigs the NHS, Andrew George voted against; Stephen Gilbert voted for and against, in effect an abstention; and no vote is recorded for Dan Rogerson (the Social Liberal Forum website says he abstained). Forty one of the fifty seven Libdem MPs supported the bill on third reading. (September 2011)

This post discusses the progressive votes of the three Cornwall Libdem MPs on council and housing association tenancies. (June 2011)

Cornwall Libdem MPs split on two votes about selling off the public forests of England on 2 February 2011. Stephen Gilbert voted for a Labour motion calling for a rethink about the sell-off (division 188); Andrew George, Stephen Gilbert, and Dan Rogerson voted against the motion. All three voted for the Tory Libdem government motion supporting the sell-off (division 189) and Stephen Gilbert also voted against it. The votes are at Hansard 2 February 2011 column 970 following. Gilbert’s votes for and against are probably to be seen as an abstention; in an intervention in the debate he said that concerns about the sell-off were “real” and “genuine” (column 941).

The Tory Libdem government, in the face of half a million objections, abandoned its forestry privatisation policy and the consultation on it. Andrew George said 17 February 2011 that the consultation should have been allowed to “run its course”.

The second reading of the Health and social care bill, which makes changes in the NHS, was on 31 January 2011. The vote on the second reading of the bill was in division 185 at Hansard column 700 and this shows Dan Rogerson voted for the bill, Andrew George abstained as he said he would, no vote is recorded for Stephen Gilbert. The three Tory MPs for Cornwall seats all voted for the second reading. (1 February 2011)

On 19 January 2011 the three Cornwall Libdem MPs voted (division 177) in support of the Tory Libdem government’s policy of abolishing the educational maintenance allowance (EMA) and replacing it with a more limited and as yet undetailed scheme. For details this post. There were 7294 recipients of EMA in Cornwall at December 2010: see Cornwall data.

The three Cornwall Libdem MPs were among those who signed the pledge to oppose any raising of the tuition fees for university students in this parliament. Stephen Gilbert, Libdem MP for Truro and St Austell, voted for the rise of fees to a basic of £6000 and a maximum of £9000 a year. Andrew George (St Ives) and Dan Rogerson (North Cornwall) voted against the rise. I discuss this in the post Uncertain trumpets (11 December 2010)

In November 2010 the three Cornwall Libdem MPs voted unsuccessfully to exempt Cornwall (and elsewhere) from the equalising of electorates in the Parliamentary voting system and constituencies bill, the Devonwall and Keep Cornwall whole issue. They voted at third reading for the whole bill which included the equalising parts.

The Tory Libdem government plans to sell off parts of the publicly-owned forests of England though there is a promise of some safeguards for public access and use.

In 2008-2009 there were proposals from the SNP Scottish government for some of the publicly-owned forests of Scotland to be leased to private companies. These were opposed by the Libdems in Scotland and among the opponents of that proposed privatisation was the UK MP Danny Alexander, now chief secretary of the UK Treasury. (Hat tip: Toque ). See here too, the Libdem Save our forests campaign site. See also Hansard 10 November 2010 column 281, the question from Tom Greatrex, Labour MP, about this to which Nick Clegg did not have an answer.

What will the Libdems in the UK parliament do about proposals to privatise some of England’s publicly-owned forests? How will Alexander vote, and the Cornwall Libdem MPs, Andrew George, Stephen Gilbert, and Dan Rogerson? (15 November 2010)

The number of recipients of local housing allowance (for people living in private rented property) in Cornwall who lose money as a result of the June 2010 Tory Libdem budget is 8450. Details are in this post. The three Libdem MPs for Cornwall described the budget as “a step forward for Cornwall and the country”.

The first pilot stage of the domestic violence protection orders scheme – arrangements which instantly safeguard wives and children from the risk of violence – due to start in October in Wiltshire and the West Midlands has been halted and whether the scheme as a whole across England goes ahead will depend on the autumn spending review. The Tory Libdem government is thinking about axing the scheme as part of its cuts.

Read the 2010 legislation about domestic violence prevention in sections 24-33 here. The explanatory notes are here. (6 August 2010)

Addendum 10 August 2010: there is an interesting post on this question at the blog Liberal Conspiracy here.

As I explain in this post the Tory Libdem axing of Labour’s planned extension of free school meals means 9700 pupils in Cornwall will lose out. (29 July 2010)

The Tory Libdem cuts in housing benefits mean nearly one million people, including pensioners, low-paid workers, and the unemployed, will lose an average of £12 a week in 2011/12. The figures come from a government analysis of the cuts. [Guardian 24 July 2010 ]

The Tory Libdem government has frozen the UK matching funding for the £500 million EU Convergence program which funds projects in Cornwall, thus freezing the EU program. If the freeze continues the economy in Cornwall will suffer with economic growth impaired and jobs lost. See details here and here. (13 July 2010)

UPDATE: After a period of much confusion, some of the schemes are to continue.

See 5b, housing. £450 million is to be cut from the budget of the Homes and Communities Agency which has programs for regeneration and the building of affordable housing. This is the figure after the government’s latest decision.

See 2c. Labour’s plans to update, refurbish, or rebuild Humphry Davy Penzance, Camborne, Pool, Redruth, Curnow Special School Redruth, and Poltair St Austell secondary schools have today (5 July 2010) been cancelledby the Tory Libdem government (open number 2 in the article). The government has issued five different lists in succession, I think: Curnow Special School, missing from the first list, now appears as cancelled on the latest 12 July one that I looked at.

UPDATE 6 August 2010: The Cornwall schools do not appear on the list of seventy seven schools now given the go ahead.

UPDATE 29 March 2011: Cornwall Council spent £515 000 on preparatory work for the aborted BSF schools. See here.

Well, 2b has been answered. On 28 June 2010 all three Cornwall Libdem MPs voted forthe motion to increase VAT. There will probably be another vote on the VAT increase in the debates on the Finance Bill: how will the three vote then?

The Tory Libdem government’s education plans for academies and free schools are taken apart here by a Libdem.

How will Cornwall Libdem MPs respond to these plans and to suggestions that they will create a two-tier system and inequality of access?

More testing issues emerging.

(a) The bulk of cuts at the Department of education for England will come from the grants to local authorities, a £311 million cut. How will this affect frontline education services in Cornwall?

(b) Will national affordable housing funds and projects in which Cornwall has a stake be affected by government cutbacks? See here and, for the New Build scheme, here. Additionally, will the PFI schemefor a major boost to affordable housing in Cornwall be affected? (2 June 2010). Now see 9.

The Conservative-Liberal Democrat government has abolished the Future Jobs Fund which helped the unemployed in Cornwall get jobs. I have put up a separate post about this here.(29 May 2010)

Ah, the new Tory Libdem politics. It turns out to be corked old wine in recycled bottles.

Read this report.

The Tory Libdem government tried to dictate to the BBC the Labour party representative who should and should not appear on Question Time. When the BBC refused the Tory Libdem demand, the government sulkily refused to send along a minister. Apparently David Laws, a Libdem minister, was meant to represent the government.

Well, the government has been neither liberal nor democratic. Will our trinity express any concern? (28 May 2010)

There are several issues coming up which will test our Libdem MPs in Cornwall. They include the following, though a-c are the most immediate:

(a) The £6 billion cuts to be announced next week. The Libdems argued before 6 May that severe cuts should not be made in 2010 but in 2011 onwards as early severe cuts could imperil any economic recovery. Now they have agreed to the Conservative plans for cuts this year.The basis of Libdem economic policy has been jettisoned. What do Cornwall Libdem MPs think of this?

Vince Cable, now business secretary, in an election leaflet I received said: “I’ve seen David Cameron and George Osborne get it wrong again and again on the economy. Conservative plans will hurt the recovery”.

(b) VAT: this is a regressive tax, hurting the poor more than the well-heeled. Will it be raised in the June budget?

(c) Labour set up a £55 billion school building program, Building Schools for the Future (BSF). Cornwall Council put up all its secondary schools in Cornwall for the BSF program to rebuild and refurnish schools and successfully claimed money for its first wave: secondary schools in Camborne, Redruth, Pool, St Austell Poltair, Penzance Humphry Davy, and Curnow special school: see this Cornwall Council 8 March 2010 media release. That money is now in doubt as the Tory education secretary reviews the program, wishing to divert the money or just cut it. Will Cornwall’s six schools get the money? If they don’t, how will the Libdem MPs for Cornwall respond? Anything other than ineffective wailing? A Libdem election leaflet I received promised they would be “improving every school”.

(d) Further down the line, the Tories wish to cut the number of MPs and equalise the electors in each constituency to around 77 000 which means constituencies crossing county boundaries. Cue the Cornwall Libdem MPs.

(e) And later, child benefits, tax credits, tax allowance for the married, unemployment benefits…

(f) And more generally, globalisation enriches western economies, including Britain’s, but can impoverish individuals within those economies. It demands free markets and the free flow of capital but there are calls to restrict free labour movement to Britain which can disadvantage people working for modest pay. Has the government any idea how to reconcile these contradictions (Labour didn’t have any)? (18 May 2010)

I have already recorded the Libdem pleas to vote tactically for them; and the Libdem conference closed to public and media scrutiny. (18 May 2010)

Link provided for number 8 along with a reference to Curnow special school (7 July 2010)
Number 9 edited to take account of the latest cuts figure for the Housing and Communities Agency (9 July 2010)
Tuition fees post updated (11 December 2010)


14 March 2015

I have written in the past about the travails of the revived/reconstructed Cornish language which had been rebuilt in several different forms. The antagonisms of some in the small groups that use the different forms were entertaining and dispiriting. Eventually a single written form, a common spelling, of the language was agreed but some understandably stuck with their variety of the language. The reports of the quango that sits atop of all these disparate people show that reconstructed Cornish exists in several forms: dialects or even languages, I suppose. I do not know whether reconstructed Cornish beyond different spellings is developing or retaining different vocabularies and grammars.

I think such variety is inevitable in any language though broadly common spelling and meaning in words are most useful. My post Caxton’s eggs is about the struggles of English to handle dialectal vocabulary variety. English in England still has dialects, or more especially particular dialectal words and phrases, which are not readily understood by other English people outside the dialect area. Dialectal grammar in English seems to be vanishing. Different accents still flourish throughout the Anglophone.

Anyway, here is Itchy feet, a capital comic that looks at language variety head on. The comments are interesting too. Three dialects of Welsh indeed.


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